The Return of Transmedia

“Transmedia Storytelling” as defined by Henry Jenkins, “represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience”. So, in other words, it is where different stories from the same ‘fictional world’ are told on different media platforms to create a unique experience.

A prime example of this is the million dollar franchise that is ‘Star Wars’. Star Wars has been around for decades and was first introduced to the entertainment world as films. George Lucas, the creator of the masterpiece that is Star Wars (no bias there!) admits that in creating Star Wars there were many inspirations. One of the main ones being a 1958 Japanese film “The Hidden Fortress in which the characters of this film inspired many of the characters used for Star Wars such as Han Solo and C3PO.

All fun facts aside, Star Wars is considered ‘Transmedia Story telling’ as companies and fans have appropriated the concept of ‘Star Wars’ and have warped it into creating their own side story within the Star Wars world. Outcast- Starwars

Companies have also created video and computer games which are telling a different story but still remain within the Star Wars universe. Such as the game created called “Star Wars: The Yoda Chronicles”. These many components have helped Star Wars build on its story across multiple media platforms and mediums. Because of these appropriations, Star Wars is considered an example of “Transmedia Story Telling”

NcUtiLm - Imgur

See more at: http://henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html#sthash.tuROKBPl.dpuf

http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_Star_Wars#History

https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-good-examples-of-transmedia-storytelling-1

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Annotated Bibliography – Positivity!

My Digital Artefact for one of my university subjects is all about how being positive and happy can improve your life in many aspects. These following sources assist in the explanation of why i chose this topic.

  1. Clear, J 2013, ‘The Science of Positive thinking: How Positive Thoughts Build your Skills, Boost your Health and Improve your Work,’ ‘The Huffington Post’, 7th October, viewed 10th April 2016 <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-clear/positive-thinking_b_3512202.html&gt;

This article written is about how positive thinking influences your health. This article, written by James Clear, outlines the impacts of what a positive mindset can give you and how it helps you develop skills and opens your mind up to new opportunities.  This article relates well to my Digital artefact because it is all about how being positive and happy improves your quality of life. This article is clear and concise and provides a perfect source in order to back up his statement, whilst also introducing new concepts for the audience to think about.

2. Frederickson, B 2001, ‘The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology’, ‘The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions’, vol. 53(6) pp. 218-226. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3122271/&gt;

This article was hyperlinked within the previous source. This source is about Psychologist Barbara Frederickson’s “Broaden-and-build hypothesis”. Frederickson’s theory is that “positive emotions asserts that people’s daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources”. This text is relevant to my digital artefact because it provides a case study of which proves that when people are experiencing positive emotions they feel that they are able to achieve more and are open to new experiences. Fredericton’s hypothesis suggests that positive emotions momentarily broaden people’s attention and thinking. This article relates well to my digital artefact because it demonstrates with evidence that having a positive mind can broaden your opportunities. Highly recommend the read 🙂

3. Bradberry, T 2013, ‘How (And Why) To Stay Positive’ , Forbes, viewed 10th April 2016, <http://www.forbes.com/sites/travisbradberry/2013/08/08/518/#2b4d5526236a&gt;

This article is very interesting and is very useful in relation to my digital artefact. It highlights the fact that the real obstacle to positivity is that our brains are hard wired to perceive and focus on threats. This article references many psychologists such as Martin Seligman and how he worked with researchers from Dartmouth and the University of Michigan to conduct a study on the results and ramifications of positivity. The downfall of this article is that it doesn’t go into deep explanation of the sub topics produced. For example, it highlights the fact that positivity is linked to a person’s performance. He then discusses a study conducted by Seligman, however he doesn’t discuss any of his own thoughts, only what was discovered from the study. Personally, i believe that if Bradberry had discussed the subtopics in his own words more as opposed to relying on the discoveries of others that it would be a more engaging to the audience. Overall a very interesting article.

4. Rimer, S, 2011 ‘Happiness & Health’ Harvard Public Health, 2011, viewed 13th April 2016, <http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/magazine/happiness-stress-heart-disease/&gt;

This article written by Sara Rimer who is a journalist and author based in Boston was very interesting. It highlights the ups and downs of being positive and remaining positive. Rimer states  that is is impossible for someone to not worry. Rimer also annotates various case studies conducted by researchers, with one in particular to which it states that optimism reduces the risk of coronary heart disease by almost half. This piece is relevant to my digital artefact because it highlights the possible outcomes of what being negative can do to your body with trustworthy sources. This article is quite extensive, however the writing flows well and is clear and concise which engages the audience in wanting to read more.

5. Conrad, L 2014, ‘Tips and Tricks: How to take the perfect Instagram’, ‘Lauren Conrad’, blog post, 29th April, viewed 13th April 2016. <https://laurenconrad.com/blog/2014/04/tips-tricks-how-to-take-the-perfect-instagram/&gt; 

This online blog post is all about how to make the perfect instagram. This article relates well to my digital artefact because it will assist me in gaining more followers for my digital artefact by learning all about how to ‘take the right photo’ and how to ‘get the right caption’. This blog is clear and concise in its writing and the photos used to demonstrate ‘the perfect instagram’ makes the post a lot easier to understand. Conrad makes a point about when taking a photo of an object, to use a simple background as to not upstage the object that you are photographing. This is a helpful tip for anyone wanting a successful instagram page and I will be sure to follow some of her tips in my digital artefact.

6. Frederickson, B 2014, ‘Barbara Frederickson’ ,  The Pursuit of Happiness, viewed 14th April 2016 <http://www.pursuit-of-happiness.org/history-of-happiness/barb-fredrickson/&gt;

This source analyses Barbara Frederickson’s ‘broaden and build theory’ a little further than my first source. This articles  dives into the study that when faced with positive emotions such as joy and contentment, our brains are open to new possibilities and ideas. This piece is important in regards to my digital artefact as Fredrickson analyses how experiencing positive emotions to negative emotions in this approximate ratio leads people to achieve optimal levels of well-being and resilience (Frederickson, B. 2013). I believe that this source is well written and discusses Frederickson’s theories and ideas in depth whilst still easy to interpret for the audience.

7. Villarica, H 2012, ‘How the Power of Positive Thinking Won Scientific Credability’, 23rd April 2016, viewed 14th April 2016 <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/04/how-the-power-of-positive-thinking-won-scientific-credibility/256223/&gt;

This article is mainly about a study conducted by Michael F. Scheier and Charles S. Carver in 1985 titled “Optimism, Coping, and Health: Assessment and Implications of Generalized Outcome Expectancies”. This whole article is about dispositional optimism. Scheier and Carver delve into the concept that a reason that many people are optimistic is that it has to do with their characteristics (internal). Scheier and Carver also state that they know why optimists do better than pessimists. They state that “Optimists are not simply being Pollyannas; they’re problem solvers who try to improve the situation” whereas Pessimists will dwell on the tragic situation. Personally, i believe that this article could have used a few more examples to consolidate their argument, however this is a very useful article for my digital artefact because it explores one of the many avenues that come from positivity.

8. McGinty, J 2015, ‘On Gauging The Pursuit of Happiness’, The Wall Street Journal, viewed 15th April 2016, <http://www.wsj.com/articles/on-gauging-the-pursuit-of-happiness-1440149401&gt;

This article by Wall Street Journal is all about happiness and positivity across the globe. It talks about which countries are the happiest. The author that has dictated the research points out that the richest countries are not necessarily the happiest. Which is where the cliche “Money doesn’t buy happiness” becomes very much a reality. For example, Luxembourg is the wealthiest country in the world  by GDP per capita however it is not listed in the happiest countries of the world. This article is very interesting to read and provides the audience with some very helpful information. It is useful to my digital artefact as it explores the cliche of “Money doesn’t buy happiness” of which people tend to overlook.

9. Holmes, L 2015, ‘How Our Family Affects Our Happiness, In One Chart’, The Huffington Post, viewed 18th April 2016, <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/how-our-family-affects-our-happiness_us_560ed2d9e4b0af3706e0b07b&gt;

This source is simple and basic, however still conveys their argument towards the audience affectively. The author introduces their argument about how our family impacts our wellbeing and then proves this statement with the following chart with numerous statistics about how having a good relationship with your family members makes you a more positive person. This article is relevant to my digital artefact because it explores one of the many avenues that relate to a persons’ positivity. Overall i believe that this article could use an example or two of some case studies conducted by researchers, however it is still a very interesting read 🙂

10. Smith, E 2013, ‘Social Connection Makes a Better Brain’, The Atlantic, viewed 21st April 2016, <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/10/social-connection-makes-a-better-brain/280934/&gt;

This source is all about Mathew Lieberman’s study on how our social connections make us happier people and assist in keeping us grounded. Lieberman states that “Just as human beings have a basic need for food and shelter, we also have a basic need to belong to a group and form relationships”. To anyone who has not studied this theory, would automatically believe that placing social relationships on the same scale of importance as eating is ridiculous. If you refer to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which is not mentioned in this text, you will see that to have love and belonging, you must first have safety. If you look at Lieberman’s concept from that perspective, it doesn’t seem so farfetched after all. This article is admissible to my digital artefact because it refers to how having a social life and being social makes us happier people with relevant sources to back up the argument. Very interesting to read 🙂

Citizen Journalism & Video Blogging

Citizen journalism has got to be one of the easiest concepts provided throughout my course at university so far!

Basically it just encapsulates the fact that due to the development of technology over the past decade and the speed at which we receive information increasing ten fold, anyone with an internet connection can be a journalist. Mainstream online journalism is often accused of being slow to respond to events and issues within the media. Because of this people have started citizen journalism. Citizen journalism is an effective form of journalism as it consolidates the publics opinion and views within the articles.

Henry Jenkins is an advocate for citizen journalism. Jenkins runs an online blog in which he delves into certain issues such as video blogging and citizen journalism; called ‘henryjenkins.org’. In one of his posts he recounts an interview with John Barth (from Public radio exchange) and Steve Garfield (who is widely credited for the video blogging movement). Throughout this interview, Garfield and Barth discuss the many pros and cons of video blogging and citizen journalism. The pros stated within the article include that when reporting an event, you can get 5, 10 or 15 people blogging about the same event and with this you are able to get a good sense of what happened at the event. Another pro is also that you can video blog however you want, you don’t have an editor telling you what to say and what side of the argument you should be for. Its all your own opinion, your own voice.

Cons mentioned within the interview include the fact that video bloggers and citizen journalists do not have the money or resources that mainstream news media outlets have. Citizen Journalists have to utilise what is readily available to them such as social media. Some people may also see that the lack of credibility is a con, due to the fact that video bloggers tend to report on their own views and their opinions, they rely on the trust of their audience.

Its also a way to get information out to the community quickly through means of social media. For example there are many online community board pages such as the ‘Camden & Narellan Community Notice Board page’. This community notice board page is used for many different things such as alerting the area of any fireworks being let off and to ensure that dogs are looked after. To tell the community of any discounts that people may be interested in from places such as Coles or Woolworths.

 

Link to Prezi: http://prezi.com/kmaoyhpo1ovv/citizen-journalism/

 

Does it matter who owns the media

Does it matter who owns the media? Yes, it does matter.

Society today is obsessed with knowing what is going on around the world. Collectively we all like to know how other countries are progressing politically and we like to know of anything that should possibly worry us. The majority of people know that it is Fairfax that owns the majority of news media such as local newspapers and the Daily Telegraph. The matter of who owns the media is important to the public because if it were all owned by the one person or company, the articles produced are more than likely going to be subject to bias. However, just because the media isn’t specifically owned by the own company or person, doesn’t mean that news articles are not subject to bias. Prime Minister Robert Menzies went to Federal Parliament in order to stop a British company from buying out 4 radio stations, it was his belief that such a strong tool for propaganda shouldn’t fall into foreign hands. He also believed that this form of media shouldn’t fall into the hands of a special interest group that are narrow minded and more likely to produce biased articles. It is writing an article that is neutral so that both sides of an argument has been discussed and they are neutralised in order for the audience to devise their own opinion of the issue is what makes an article successful. It matters who owns the media because without the variation and acknowledging fact versus opinion within an article, Australia would all have the same view as opposed to devising their own opinion on the matter.

For example, whenever it comes time to vote, newspapers tend to publish stories that make the party that they’re voting for look better than the other. Newspapers will also post stories for the opposite parties which can hinder their reputation. A prime example of this is when it came to the election in 2014 between Rudd and Abbott, the Daily telegraph posted newspaper headlines in order to make Abbott look like the better option for parliament against Rudd:

The market is too narrow for newspapers to play to the centre ground, it’s the outrageous headlines such as ‘Kick this mob out!’ With a photo of Kevin Rudd and headlines like ‘Australia Needs Tony!’ With a photo of Tony Abbott that catches the audiences eye. Headlines like ‘liberal and labor: both beneficial’ aren’t going to make the audience want to read the article because they have already formulated their opinion and are more than likely not going to agree to anything that the opposition has to say. However if the headline were to relate to a robbery or a plane crash with a neutral slogan, the audience is more likely to read the article due to the fact that they have no knowledge of the story.

Example

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Overall, it matters who owns the media because the public needs to learn about the events happening around the world but need to do so without the excessive amount of bias that would come if there were only to be one man or company owning the media.

-Kathryn

References

http://www.crikey.com.au/2007/06/26/crikey-bias-o-meter-the-newspapers/

http://theconversation.com/malcolm-fraser-does-it-matter-who-owns-our-papers-yes-it-does-7738

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/Media-Bias-Is-Real-Finds-UCLA-6664